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Ouranosaurus (meaning “Brave Lizard”) is a genus of iguanodontid dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous of northern Africa, especially in the Echkar Formation in Niger. Two very complete specimens were unearthed in the Echkar Formation. The first complete fossil found in 1965 and the second in 1972. The type species, O. nigerensis, was described by Phillippe Taquet. It was originally estimated at 23 feet (7 metres) long and 4.4 tons (4 tonnes). In 2010, Gregory S. Paul estimated the length at 27 feet (8 metres), and the weight at 2.4 tons (2.2 tonnes). It is closely related to Iguanodon and Mantellisaurus. The thing that sets it apart from ┬áIguanodon and Mantellisaurus is the large sail on it’s back, similar to Spinosaurus. Interestingly Ouranosaurus was a prey item to Spinosaurus and Suchomimus (both had sails;Spinosaurus:6 ft sail and Suchomimus: 3 ft sail). This large sail may have helped it cool down during summer and heat up during winter. Some scientists do not believe that this was a sail but rather a hump of fat, similar to a camel, to go long distances in the Sahara Desert. Scientists that believe in the sail say that the Sahara was not a desert, but a tropical jungle with deposits of sand here and there, making a hump of fat obsolete. Ouranosaurus had a small crest just before the eyes, comparable to Maiasaura, but not exactly.

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